Neurofeedback: A secret weapon against cognitive decline

Discover how neurofeedback training can help combat cognitive decline in older adults. Learn how EEG and biofeedback techniques can improve brain function.

Apr 17, 2024

Aging gracefully

As we age, it's natural to experience some degree of cognitive decline. Many individuals notice changes in memory, attention, and processing speed, which can be frustrating and even worrisome. While these changes are a normal part of the aging process, emerging research suggests that neurofeedback and neuromodulation techniques may offer promising solutions for maintaining and even enhancing cognitive function in older adults.

Introducing neurofeedback

Neurofeedback, a non-invasive brain training technique, has been shown to have positive effects on cognitive function in aging populations. By providing real-time feedback on brain activity, neurofeedback helps individuals learn to modulate their brain waves and optimize their cognitive performance. Studies have demonstrated that neurofeedback training can lead to improvements in memory, attention, and overall cognitive flexibility in older adults (Angelakis et al., 2007; Lecomte & Juhel, 2011).

In the realm of neurofeedback, alpha frequency (8-12 Hz) serves as a critical marker for assessing cognitive health. Research indicates that when the mean alpha frequency consistently falls within the 8-10 Hz range, individuals often begin to experience mild cognitive decline, potentially necessitating some level of assistance within approximately two years. More concerning is a drop below 8 Hz, which can signal a more rapid progression of cognitive impairment, likely requiring full-time care in a similar timeframe. Fortunately, there is a silver lining: neurofeedback and neuromodulation have shown promise in many cases for stabilizing or even improving alpha frequency, thereby potentially mitigating further cognitive decline and enhancing quality of life

One particularly promising area of research involves the use of neurofeedback to enhance gamma wave activity, specifically in the 40 Hz range. Gamma waves are associated with higher-order cognitive processes, such as perception, attention, and memory. Research suggests that individuals with age-related cognitive decline often exhibit reduced gamma wave activity compared to their younger counterparts (Düzel et al., 2010). By training the brain to produce more 40 Hz gamma waves, neurofeedback may help to counteract this decline and maintain optimal cognitive function (Keizer et al., 2010).

Neuromodulation as an alternative to neurofeedback

In addition to neurofeedback, neuromodulation techniques like photobiomodulation (PBM) are also showing promise in the fight against age-related cognitive decline. PBM involves the use of low-level light therapy to stimulate cellular processes in the brain, promoting neuronal health and function. Research has shown that PBM can improve cerebral blood flow, reduce inflammation, and enhance the production of neurotrophic factors that support the growth and survival of brain cells (Hamblin, 2016).

Recent studies have explored the use of PBM in combination with neurofeedback, specifically targeting the 40 Hz gamma range. This approach aims to enhance the effects of neurofeedback by promoting optimal neuronal health and function, creating an environment that is more conducive to learning and neuroplasticity. By combining these two powerful techniques, researchers hope to develop more effective interventions for maintaining and even improving cognitive function in older adults (Saltmarche et al., 2017).

Promising results to inhibit mild cognitive decline

While the research on neurofeedback and neuromodulation for age-related cognitive decline is still in its early stages, the results so far are promising. As these techniques continue to evolve and gain recognition, they may become increasingly accessible to individuals looking to protect and enhance their cognitive health as they age.

It's important to note that while neurofeedback and neuromodulation show great potential, they should be viewed as part of a comprehensive approach to healthy aging. Engaging in regular physical exercise, maintaining a balanced diet, staying socially active, and engaging in mentally stimulating activities are all important components of a holistic strategy for promoting brain health and preventing cognitive decline (Ahlskog et al., 2011).

Finding a neurofeedback or neuromodulation practitioner

If you're interested in exploring neurofeedback or neuromodulation as a means of combating age-related cognitive decline, it's essential to work with a qualified and experienced practitioner. They can help you determine which techniques are best suited to your individual needs and goals, and guide you through the process of optimizing your brain function.


As we continue to unravel the mysteries of the aging brain, techniques like neurofeedback and neuromodulation offer hope for a future in which cognitive decline is no longer an inevitable part of the aging process. By harnessing the power of these innovative approaches, we may be able to help individuals maintain their mental acuity, creativity, and zest for life well into their golden years.


Angelakis, E., Stathopoulou, S., Frymiare, J. L., Green, D. L., Lubar, J. F., & Kounios, J. (2007). EEG neurofeedback: a brief overview and an example of peak alpha frequency training for cognitive enhancement in the elderly. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 21(1), 110-129.

Ahlskog, J. E., Geda, Y. E., Graff-Radford, N. R., & Petersen, R. C. (2011). Physical exercise as a preventive or disease-modifying treatment of dementia and brain aging. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 86(9), 876-884.

Düzel, E., Penny, W. D., & Burgess, N. (2010). Brain oscillations and memory. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 20(2), 143-149.

Hamblin, M. R. (2016). Shining light on the head: photobiomodulation for brain disorders. BBA Clinical, 6, 113-124.

Keizer, A. W., Verment, R. S., & Hommel, B. (2010). Enhancing cognitive control through neurofeedback: a role of gamma-band activity in managing episodic retrieval. NeuroImage, 49(4), 3404-3413.

Lecomte, G., & Juhel, J. (2011). The effects of neurofeedback training on memory performance in elderly subjects. Psychology, 2(8), 846-852.

Saltmarche, A. E., Naeser, M. A., Ho, K. F., Hamblin, M. R., & Lim, L. (2017). Significant improvement in cognition in mild to moderately severe dementia cases treated with transcranial plus intranasal photobiomodulation: case series report. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 35(8), 432-441.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is neurofeedback?

Neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback that measures brain activity through an EEG to provide real-time information on brain function. It is often used to improve cognitive function and can be beneficial in conditions such as ADHD.

How does neurofeedback training relate to cognitive decline?

Neurofeedback training has shown promising results in potentially mitigating cognitive decline in older adults. Studies suggest that neurofeedback may improve cognitive performance and working memory in individuals experiencing cognitive impairment.

What are the potential benefits of neurofeedback therapy for cognitive function?

Neurofeedback therapy has been linked to improved cognitive abilities and may help individuals with cognitive impairment. The neurofeedback protocol used and the neurofeedback system utilized can impact the outcomes of the therapy.

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